Multiple sclerosis (“MS”) is the autoimmune disease of the central nervous systems, including brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves due to damage of the myelin, the fatty tissue surrounding nerve fibers that helps the nerve conduct electric impulses. The attack of myelin by the immune system is due to the activation of a subpopulation of T-cells that recognize a specific antigen from proteins in myelin.
A defining stage in immune response is the differentiation of CD4+ T-cells into either type-1 helper T-cells (TH1) or type-2 helper T-cells (TH2). Differentiation into TH1 cells predominantly results in cell-mediated immunity while differentiation into TH2 cells predominantly results in humoral immunity. TH1 dominant immunity protects the body against intracellular pathogens (e.g. bacteria) but is also implicated in autoimmune diseases.